Real talk: Sometimes, students won’t meet our class expectations. No matter how clear, repetitive, and collaborative the process is. And here’s the thing, that’s ok. Mistakes are part of learning. But, to learn from mistakes, students need feedback. Enter: Logical Consequences.
Why Logical Consequences?
The concept of logical consequences REVOLUTIONIZED my approach to classroom management.
Prior, I knew of two “behavior management” responses: reward systems and punitive consequences. Neither sat well with me. After all, I saw traditional punitive systems fail students repeatedly. And the idea of rewarding students for expected behavior felt like teaching students to meet expectations for the wrong reasons- external motivation.
Logical Consequences made sense for two reasons:
- They intend to teach students the WHY behind expectations and personal responsibility.
- They build intrinsic motivation to take responsibility for one’s actions
Today, I will walk you through all things Logical Consequences. First, I’ll explain the WHAT. Then, I’ll explain the WHY and HOW of logical consequences in the classroom.
What are Logical Consequences?
I first heard about logical consequences in my Responsive Classroom training. In short: Responsive Classroom describes logical consequences as responses to student behavior that reflect natural outcomes, respect student agency, and teach the student how to solve a problem. For example, if a student runs across the classroom and knocks over a jar of markers, the markers are now on the floor. A logical consequence would be that the student must clean up the markers.
As adults, we encounter logical consequences all the time. Sometimes it is more explicit: I will lose my job if I don’t show up to work. Other times, it is internal: If I knock over a shelf full of oranges (yes, it’s happened), I will feel responsible for picking them up because I don’t want to burden others. Logical consequences in the classroom teach that internal response.
Three Types of Logical Consequences
Not all Logical Consequences are the same. The purpose of a logical consequence is to build intrinsic responsibility. It is important to think through the LOGIC behind your response to a child:
- Are you trying to teach them how to solve a problem?
- Do you want the student to practice emotional regulation?
- Does the student need to learn that participation in certain activities requires a level of safety and awareness?
When enforcing logical consequences, it is best to think in “If… Then…” language. The consequence must match the behavior and include a restorative, meaningful response.
If there is a problem to fix, then…
One type of logical consequence is “fixing a problem.” If a student causes an issue, intentionally or unintentionally, it is the student’s responsibility to fix the problem or support a solution.
End Goal: To teach students to solve a problem they have caused.
Here are some examples:
- If Ginny plays a game roughly or dangerously and causes Luke to get hurt, I would direct Ginny to ask Luke if they are okay and support Luke by getting an ice pack and bringing them to the nurse.
- If Naomi plays with the bookshelf and causes the books to fall off the shelf, I would direct Naomi to carefully reorganize the books that fell.
If a student needs support with emotional regulation, then…
Another type of logical consequence is “a moment away.” Remember when I emphasized the importance of creating a safe space when setting up a classroom? This is when that “Australia” safe space will come in handy.
Sometimes, I notice a student getting angry, upset, or frustrated. I want to teach the student to take space and time in those moments of “big feelings.” As a logical consequence, I ask them to spend some time in the safe space until they are ready to rejoin the activity.
End Goal: To provide a student with space and time to regulate emotions before rejoining the group. Additionally, it teaches students that it is okay to take time to self-soothe.
Here are some examples:
- If Tom loses a game and starts to get angry with his teammates, I would ask Tom to take some time to breathe in our safe space.
- If Lilou returns from recess with tears in her eyes and seems unable to join the group immediately, I would ask her to take a moment away to self-soothe until she feels ready to be part of the community.
If a student does not meet the expectations of an activity, then…
This is what I call a “last resort” logical consequence. In rare instances, students are unable to meet the agreed-upon expectations. As a result, their behavior may start to derail the group, feel unsafe (physically or emotionally), or cause material destruction.
That is a clear sign: that student is not yet ready to participate in those kinds of activities. So, they lose the privilege to join until they show they can.
End Goal: To evoke a deeper understanding of an expectation and the student’s internal belief that they can meet the expectation.
Here are some examples:
- If Kailey misuses or breaks our crayons in ways that ruin their use for other students, they will lose the privilege to use crayons until they show they can use materials responsibly.
- If Gerald exhibits unsafe behavior in a morning meeting game, he will lose the privilege of playing.
Why Should I Use Logical Consequences?
First, let’s think about our desired outcome when responding to unsafe or disrespectful behavior. We want our classroom management to:
- Support student self-esteem and self-worth (yes, this is crucial)
- Honor student agency
- Stop the negative behavior as quickly as possible
- Prevent unsafe behavior from happening again
- Teach students to take personal responsibility
What’s the difference?
Here’s the hill I’m willing to die on: Punitive punishment is ineffective:
- It relies on external systems of consequences that do not match or reflect a student’s behavior.
- It does not honor student agency or teach a solution to the problem, meaning the behavior will likely happen again.
- It causes resentment and harms the relationship between teacher and student without any long-term benefit.
While much more humane, Reward Systems offer little benefit as well:
- They reinforce the idea that expected, positive behavior will result in external rewards.
- They do not teach the intrinsic value of personal responsibility within a classroom.
- They are passive classroom management and do not address behaviors immediately and directly.
On the other hand, logical consequences reflect the problem and support student growth. And, if done appropriately, maintain student dignity.
Positive Logical Consequences!
Not all consequences are negative. In fact, throughout the day, we are constantly practicing and experiencing the impact of positive consequences. And, yes, it is important to highlight those moments as well.
Positive NATURAL consequences happen all the time. For example, if a student perseveres through a difficult math activity, they benefit in two ways. First, they become a stronger math student. Second, they successfully complete the assignment.
So let’s examine the difference between positive natural and positive logical consequences.
The Difference: Natural vs. Logical Consequences
One key difference is that positive logical consequences are more explicit than natural ones. In the classroom, that means a teacher (or peer) emphasizes positive behavior in some way.
Here are some contrasting examples to help:
If Sameer is kind to a peer:
- Natural Consequence: the peer will likely be kind in return (immediately or in time)
- Logical Consequence: I would highlight how Sameer met our co-created class expectations and provide an extra logical consequence. I might say, “Your actions show that I can trust you to make strong decisions for the group, would you like to be the group leader today?”
If Raul cleans up class materials quickly:
- Natural consequence: Raul will have a clear table and be ready for the next activity.
- Logical consequence: I would highlight how Raul followed directions quickly and met our expectations, and I might add that Raul can line up first because he is ready to go!
If Natasha shows a lot of focus and participation in a lesson:
- Natural consequence: Natasha will most likely learn the material with more ease.
- Logical consequence: I would highlight Natasha’s high participation and effort, and I might offer her an additional free choice or more book time because she learned the material quickly.
Consistency is Key
Sorry folks, while logical consequences will transform your classroom management style, they aren’t a “quick fix.”
In all, logical consequences are external acknowledgments of students taking personal responsibility. But that doesn’t mean one logical consequence will shift a child’s intrinsic sense of responsibility. Like any lesson: consistency and repetition are key.
The Meaning of Consistency
What do I mean by consistency? Two things:
- First, logical consequences should be consistent across students.
No two students are alike. However, if two students exhibit the same behavior, the logical consequence should match it. If Anna and Nicole both use crayons in ways that don’t meet our expectations, they should both lose the privilege to use them.
- Second, if a student repeats a behavior, the logical consequence should stay consistent.
Truthfully, I’m guilty. For a while, I did not consistently enforce logical consequences. Instead, I would give “warnings” or change the kind of consequence. The end result? Nothing changed.
Then, I stuck with it. For example, every time my student, Bill, would show a higher-than-expected level of anger or frustration after a game, I would ask Bill to take time in the safe space. Eventually, Bill started to ask for it. And, over time, the amount of self-soothing and emotional regulation time decreased.
Clear and Direct
Don’t leave wiggle room for misinterpretation. Logical consequences should be simple, immediate, and to the point. The language is simple: Name the behavior, name the logical consequence, and give the why.
Here are some phrases I often use:
- “You chose to use those crayons in an unsafe way, so you will lose the privilege of crayons until you show that you can use them safely.”
- “Your body language shows a level of frustration that does not match the situation, go to the safe space. Come back when you feel ready.”
Keep It Private
A huge pillar of logical consequences: support student self-esteem.
Confronting a mistake is never easy. For kids and adults. Now, imagine confronting a mistake in front of a large group of peers.
While it isn’t always easy, try to keep your logical consequences discrete: quick and private. Especially when it feels more negative. I like to walk over to students, get to their level, and quietly tell them the behavior and the consequence.
Teach About Logical Consequences
Rule of thumb: Be open. Be honest. Reflect.
Lead a Discussion
Let’s talk about Transparency.
Throughout the process of co-creating class expectations, we aim for:
- Student empowerment through feelings of belonging and ownership over the classroom agreements
That same goes for logical consequences. Now, it is time to get real with students: We know expectations won’t be met 100% of the time.
After establishing our classroom expectations, I lead a discussion about logical consequences. Like our agreements as a community, I want us to co-create an understanding of how we address the moments when a classmate doesn’t follow our agreements. We:
- Think about what would be an appropriate response to each unmet expectation.
- Create If…Then… charts to support a visual understanding of logical consequences.
The goal: Students can predict and understand the logical consequences of their actions. Nothing should be a surprise.
Read Aloud: If Everybody Did
Every year there is one guarantee: at least one student thinks, “Well, I don’t really have to follow the rules.” (Think: the student who leaves materials on the table or doesn’t push in their chair). And truth be told, sometimes many students need a more concrete or narrative example to support their understanding of personal responsibility.
That’s where read-alouds come in. My absolutely favorite is If Everybody Did. This book explains the importance of meeting expectations in a community ALL OF THE TIME. Don’t worry! It does so with a good dose of humor. Students will see the impact of personal responsibility while rolling on the floor with laughter.
Implementing logical consequences consistently and transparently will transform your classroom management. Ultimately, they will help you create the predictable, safe environment that children need to thrive. Ready to implement? Let me know how it goes. And, as always, I’m here to answer questions and support you as you go. Have a great launch into the school year!
Gosh! I love your blogs!!!
You might remember that I’m in my 32nd year of teaching. Logical consequences have gone in and out of vogue for some time over those years. So has a “responsive classroom.” I love that there appears to be a while movement on the idea now. It has always been my way and it’s neat that there’s training in it.
I particularly appreciated your comments about the teaching of natural and logical consequences. Young children are often egocentric in their development and don’t understand/know to care about others. I just purchased “If Everybody Did” as it is a spectacular resource for teaching consequences. I also like “Ordinary Mary” as a follow-up to see how consequences go both ways!!!
I’ve been referring a lot of teachers to your blog!!! So many great ideas!!!!!
Jillian, this is absolutely brilliant and timely! Your previous post on creating classroom expectations is equally excellent. While I am an experienced teacher and many of the ideas posted here have been followed, but not followed consistently. More importantly I have not discussed the consequences with students in such an easy to understand and explicit manner. Thank you for sharing! Wish me luck as I begin to implement the expectations and logical consequences in my Grade 6 this year!